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胡平:知识分子的天职——赞郑也夫文章(图)

January 18, 2019


北京大学社会学教授郑也夫。(Public Domain)

北京大学社会学教授郑也夫在网上发表文章《政改难产之困》指出:“今后中国共产党的领袖所能做出的唯一可望载入史册的大事情,就是引领这个党体面地淡出历史舞台”;引发如潮好评,反响相当热烈。

不过也有人说,郑也夫写这样的文章,还是走的进谏上书的老套路,是对牛弹琴,与虎谋皮,还是对共产党抱幻想。

不对。郑也夫这篇文章并不是专门写给最高领导人的,而是公开发表在网上面向公众,面向全社会的,怎么能说是进谏上书呢?另外,郑也夫分明写到“共产党几乎已经完全丧失了自我纠错的机制”,怎么能说是对共产党抱幻想呢?

郑也夫在他的文章里讲到如下一段往事:

“1948年1月,在中共公布《中国土地法大纲》三个月后,费孝通在他反对暴力土改的文章《黎民不饥不寒的小康水准》中写道:‘历史并不常是合理的,但是任何历史的情境中总包含着一条合理的出路,历史能不能合理发展,是在人能不能有合理的行为。一个被视为书生的人,有责任把合理的方向指出来,至于能不能化为历史,那应当是政治家的事了。’”

70年过去了,现在我们回过头来看费孝通这篇文章。请问在当时,费孝通发表这样的文章对不对呢?他该不该发表这样的文章呢?如果你批评费孝通太天真、太幼稚,看不懂共产党,那是不是说,如果一个人不天真、不幼稚,看懂了共产党,他就不要发表这样的文章呢?那是不是说,一个知识分子应该察言观色,事先估计好你的话别人爱听不爱听,然后再决定自己发言不发言呢?如果是那样,还配得上叫知识分子吗?

知识分子之所以讲话,当然希望别人听,希望同道、希望民众听,希望掌权者听,希望自己的主张得以付诸实行,但是他并不是算准了别人都要听才讲话的。而且很可能,他估计到有人不爱听,甚至还可能讨厌你的讲话,还想编个名目整治你。但是他依然要讲,因为他认为他讲的话是对的,他认为讲出他认为正确的话是他的责任。这和别人爱听不爱听没有关系,该讲的就是要讲。知识分子的天职就在于,给未必总是合理发展的历史指出合理的方向。

郑也夫通过发表这篇文章,给中国知识分子树立了榜样。中国知识界有不少这样的榜样。正如郑也夫所说:如果有更多的知识分子“都忠实于自己的良知,都勇于讲出自己的看法,中国不会是今天的样子”。
 

——转自自由亚洲电台(2019-01-11)

中国人权双周刊》第253期,2019年1月18日—2019年2月31日

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